Review by: ELZA TINER, Lynchburg College - April 1, 2011
At first glance, compared to other popular Latin textbooks, the cost of Latin for the New Millennium (LNM) might lead to comments, such as that of a colleague, who recently assured me, "You can get everything you need" in another Latin grammar text for about a third of the price. Certainly more inexpensive Latin textbooks are available. However, if a textbook motivates students to read and learn with interest and understanding, the book is worth the price.
Last year, I assigned LNM Level 1, to my Elementary I and II Latin students. Unlike many of the students in the Intermediate Latin class, which was using a different text, the Elementary Latin students were eager to delve into the chapters. For example, every two weeks I would assign a quiz game in which each team of students had to create ten challenge questions from a unit of LNM for opposing teams in the class. The questions had to be drawn from specific sections of the chapters, such as the introductory reading passage in Latin, the grammar explanation, the English to Latin sentences, the dialogues, vocabulary, and information about Roman culture in the chapters or at the end of each unit. At the end of the exercise, for additional points, each student handed in his or her cards with the questions, answers, and page numbers in the textbook where they found the answers. This exercise was so popular that students requested it more often. At the end of the 2011 spring semester, one section of Elementary Latin II was asked if they would like to continue with LNM or switch to another textbook. They voted for LNM, so this fall, my Intermediate class, including those former Elementary Latin II students, will adopt Level 2 of LNM.
What makes LNM appealing to students? At first glance, it draws readers in, with clear, large font, straightforward explanations, and brightly colored scenes from Italian cities and images from Roman artifacts and architecture, evoking a sense of exploration, entry into a world where Latin is yet alive, where people read, write, speak, and live the language. The book takes an interwoven approach to the skills needed for meeting the standards of proficiency in language acquisition: reading comprehension and translation, composing and speaking Latin, and Roman history and culture.
Each chapter begins with a short passage for reading and translation, adapted from a primary work by a Roman author. The readings are also arranged chronologically, so that, in Level 1, students are introduced to key events from Roman history, starting with the story of Romulus and Remus, and moving through authors from the Republic and Imperial eras. Level 1 also introduces students to the genres of Roman literature, including short dialogues adapted from Plautus and Terence; prose excerpts adapted from Cicero, Caesar, Nepos, Sallust, Livy, Seneca, Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, Apuleius, and Ammianus; and prose adaptations from the poets Catullus, Ovid, and Vergil. The book closes with excerpts from Augustine and Boethius that provide a transition to the study of Medieval Latin. Level 2 provides an introduction to later authors, including prose and poetry, drawn from Medieval and Renaissance/Humanist Latin, with emphasis on the transmission of Roman influences on the later liberal arts and sciences in European and New World cultures. Authors, arranged chronologically, include Bede, Einhard, Heloise to Abelard, Petrarch, Lorenzo Valla, Erasmus, Thomas More, Juan Gines de Sepulveda, Copernicus, and Ludvig Holberg. Level 2 also includes practice with unadapted Classical Latin: ten sections from Cornelius Nepos on the life of Cicero's friend, Atticus. The chapters in Level2 can be supplemented with readings from earlier texts in classical Latin, such as Cicero's letters and orations, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Vergil's Aeneid, as well as other authors, such as those from Level 1, on parallel themes.
A glossary of unfamiliar words and phrases accompanies each reading on the facing page, and following the readings are comprehension questions, explanations of the grammar topic of the chapter, carefully represented in the reading, and composing and speaking exercises to reinforce grammar and vocabulary. Students enjoy reading and even acting out the dialogues, which can also serve as models for new dialogues of the students' own composition. Chapters are interlinked in a progression, so that previous material is reviewed while new material is added in the readings and in the exercises. Cultural information relates to the readings, and, at unit ends, essays by prominent classicists provide additional background. Thus from both levels of the textbook, students gain linguistic skills and cultural background with an introduction to texts adapted from primary authors. This is one of the greatest strengths of this series, in addition to its emphasis on applying Latin both in speaking and in writing. Students can be assigned to research background on the authors of the reading passages, and also locate their original Latin texts, and thereby begin to learn as classicists do, from surviving evidence. In this way, LNM serves a double purpose, in that it teaches both about and from primary texts, opening many pathways for further exploration and learning of Latin.
These textbooks are supported with excellent ancillaries: teacher's guides for both the textbook and the workbook, and an online teacher's lounge. The authors have provided a wealth of exercises, more than can be covered in each chapter and unit, given course time limitations, but this abundance has an advantage: teachers can select what they need or create their own exercises following the examples in the textbook. This summer (2011), an online version of the text is being made available at a slightly reduced price, a welcome addition, now that digital media are becoming a common alternative to the printed page.
As with any textbook, especially in its early editions, there are a few minor issues. When LNM 1 was first released in 2009, it was shortly followed by an updated version. The earlier version is, for the most part, no longer in circulation. However, if students are purchasing used books, some may obtain the earlier text, and as a result, find differences in the content of exercises. The glossary at the end of LNM 1 could be more comprehensive, to include words in the practice dialogues, in addition to the vocabulary from the reading passages for each chapter, which are carefully glossed in both Latin-English and English-Latin sections. However, a positive feature of the chapter glossaries to reading passages is that words to be memorized are starred. And finally, the index to the book could be more consistent; at times it is more efficient to look up specific topics, such as verb conjugations, by leafing through the table of contents than by consulting the index, which lists declensions with page references under "nouns," but under "verbs," conjugations are not listed. On the other hand, declensions and conjugations are also indexed under their own respective headings, which is helpful.
Overall, LNM is student-friendly, and excellent for courses in which the goal is to introduce students to the multiple modes of language learning, together with a history of Roman culture and the spread of the Latin language, through excerpts from primary texts, adapted to the level of the students' proficiency. In response to the evaluation question, "What impact did the learning resources of the course (e.g., classroom facilities, media, computers, printed materials, texts) have on your learning?" two Latin 101 students responded thus: "The book was very helpful," and "The book for the course was resourceful and had examples that helped me comprehend the structure of the language easier." What more can a teacher ask of a textbook?
Review by: Angel Warner, LatinTeach List - November 23, 2009
I am currently teaching from LNM I and II after using Wheelock for a number of years. I still have a soft spot in my heart for Wheelock, but I am greatly enjoying LNM.
The readings are wonderful. They are chronologically sequenced across the two texts in the series which I find helpful in getting students to understand the flow of history and Latin's connection to it. I love that Latin culture/civilization/mythology don't have to be an add-ons. These are incorporated already into each chapter and each unit has a stand alone review chapter that focuses on certain aspects of Roman life, etc. In terms of aesthetics, the book is lovely. The pictures spark many interesting questions and conversations with my students. The oral component is helpful in encouraging greater use of the language during class time. In my situation we don't always have time to get to these exercises, but the Teacher's Manual has many simple suggestions for using Latin while teaching the grammar. I find this helpful and a safety net for myself as I try to move in this direction. We also use the Student Workbook which has varied exercises which require the students to produce the language fairly early on.
I'm hoping that all the readings will soon be completed on the LNM website for both books. Currently, only part of the readings from Level I are recorded there. My students really enjoyed being able to listen to these and do dictation exercises at home. Some students did it everyday and said it was their favorite part of their Latin homework. I'm looking forward to these being completed so they can be a part of my permanent assignment schedule. The website has many helpful extra exercises, maps, etc. There is more than any one teacher can possibly use, but it makes for nice variety when you aren't feeling creative or have little time for making up your own work. There are also test bank questions, too, which can be helpful.
You are right that there is no such thing as a perfect text. I sometimes find that I have to do a lot more explanation of grammar. My bright kids can read the explanations and take off, but the average to reluctant students sometimes have a bit of trouble. I think this is more a deficiency in student understanding of English grammar perhaps than an actual flaw in the text. The text assumes a certain mastery level of English grammar that, unfortunately, not all students have. Example:having to explain complex sentence structure before teaching indirect statement. It's not a big deal, just letting you know this may be an issue for your students, as well.
The only true down mark I can give to the book is the cumbersome size of the Teacher's Manual. It is full of great information and makes prepping easy, but it is awkward to use in class time. Having said that, I have no better idea of how it could have been configured given the amount of information it contains. Note that there is currently no Teacher's Manual available for Level II. That is a little tricky sometimes. On the website, units one and two of the Teacher's Manual have been posted. Once you get past units one and two, it is a little inconvenient, but not undoable.
All in all, I would say that this series is well worth the investment. It will only improve as all the components come to fruition. The quality of the series far outweighs any of the temporary inconveniences related to the "youth" of the program. No matter what your pedagocial slant may be, LNM offers a solid base from which to launch.
Best wishes on your search,
Angel A. Warner
Review by: John Traupman - July 2, 2009
From: John Traupman
To: Marie Bolchazy
Cc: Terence Tunberg
Sent: Jul 2, 2009 10:10 PM
Thank you for the copy of Level II of LNM and the TM and student's
workbook . It is truly a spectacular book. The photos are simply beautfiul.
The text is wonderfully written. I think that this textbook will gradually
replace all the others on the market. Terence and Milena will be familiar
to generations of Latin students.
Again, sincere thanks.
John C. Traupman
Review by: Bradley Ritter, Bryn Mawr Classical Review - May 28, 2009
Copied from: http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2009/2009-05-38.html
Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009.05.38
Milena Minkova, Terence Tunberg, Latin for the New Millennium: Student Text, Level 1. Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2008. Pp. xxxiv, 442. ISBN 978-0-86516-560-1. $67.00 (hb).
Milena Minkova, Terence Tunberg, Latin for the New Millennium: Teacher Manual, Level 1. Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2008. Pp. lx, 442. ISBN 978-0-86516-562-5. $99.00 (pb).
Reviewed by Bradley Ritter, Ave Maria University (email@example.com)
Word count: 3677 words
Terence Tunberg and Milena Minkova's Latin for the New Millennium ('LNM') is a strikingly original and decidedly effective text for introductory Latin. In it, the authors claim to strike a balance between the inductive, or reading method, and the deductive method commonly used in Greek and Latin instruction, and they are successful in that (see p.vii in the Teacher's Manual). Though they do not mention it explicitly, they have also transcended the cultural aspirations of most reading-based texts with their successful adaptation of original passages to the needs of beginning Latin students, helping students to see for themselves some of what Latin literature has to offer them. In their choice of authors for their adapted passages, they go in a temporal sequence from Plautus to Boethius in level one, and from Bede to the early modern writers (such as Copernicus or the lesser known Ludvig Holberg) in level two. In doing so, they make a strong case for Latin by constantly holding before their readers' eyes the vast temporal reach of the language and its importance to European intellectual history. These aspects of the text are fairly obvious after even a passing glance. Much less noticeable initially, but of equal if not greater importance, is the text's uncommonly rich supply of exercises, both written and oral, which are as numerous as they are effective.
The text is suitable both for high school and university students. Representatives of the press (per litteras) say that university students could complete the first level (the text here under review) in one semester, and the second level in another (to be released in June 2009, according to the press). High school courses could take an entire year for the first level, and at least that for the second level. Because level two ends with ten sections of unadapted Latin from Nepos' life of Atticus, both texts together could conceivably be used over two or three semesters in university courses, and, for high schools, both levels one and two could be used over three years. The teacher's manual, which includes a reprint of the basic textbook, also includes oral, supplementary exercises, a key for all exercises, and translations of all the Latin readings. There is also a workbook, which itself has a teacher's key. Online aids are plentiful.1
Each chapter begins with a quotation of the author who is the focus of the chapter. So, in chapter three, we find 'Homo sum: humani nihil a me alienum puto,' (Heauton Timoroumenos 77), followed by an adapted reading from Terence, and in chapter seven, 'Odi et amo', followed by an adaptation of Catullus 2 and 5. But the heart of every chapter is the reading adapted from that author. The reading contains the basic vocabulary to be learned, and its concepts and themes are often reiterated in practice sentences throughout the chapter. This repetition in the exercises also provides sensible and effective reinforcement of both vocabulary and new grammatical concepts. The adapted readings include the standard authors, Cicero, Caesar, Catullus, Sallust, Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Seneca, Tacitus, as well as the welcome additions of authors not so standard, including both Augustine and Boethius, as well as Apuleius and Ammianus. After the adapted reading, there is a gloss list on the facing page to help students navigate through new vocabulary and unfamiliar morphology. Because the reading includes elements of grammar to be introduced in later sections, the glosses often include translations of forms students would otherwise be unable to interpret on their own. Next come two or three sections, called Language Fact I, II or III, each providing an explanation of some new point of morphology or syntax. Each of these sections also includes at least one, and usually more, exercises to help students apply this morphology through transformations, translation of forms, and analysis or translation from Latin to English. Finally, the chapter closes with a dialogue of conversational Latin focused on common situations in everyday life: greetings and leave-takings, describing where one comes from, vocabulary and formulae appropriate to the classroom, and related items.
The basic arrangement of grammatical material will come as no surprise to any Latin instructor, and any changes to the standard presentation are subtle and welcome. The goal of the level one text is to present the basic morphology of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, the functions of the cases, indicative and infinitive verbs and the principal parts, the irregular verbs sum and possum, relative clauses, indirect discourse, and two participles (perfect passive and future active). Accordingly, the list of morphological and syntactic points found in the level two text is equally unsurprising: subjunctives, ablative absolute constructions, the passive periphrastic, other irregular verbs, comparatives and superlatives of adjectives and adverbs, and the present participle. The authors depart from the norm where appropriate. The concept of case and the names of the five Latin cases are explained quickly so that students can memorize whole declensions immediately (pp. 6-7). But the main functions of the cases are unpacked gradually over several chapters (the nominative and accusative in ch. 1, pp. 6-7; genitive and vocative in ch. 3 (p. 37); dative in ch. 4 (p. 62); the ablative in ch. 8 (pp. 128-129)). Again, the book introduces the accusative with infinitive construction relatively early (in ch. 7, pp. 116-19), so that students grow familiar with this over time and can add in new grammatical features as they are gradually revealed (such as perfect active and passive infinitives, pp. 354-357, and, later, future (active) infinitives, pp. 368-370).
A review follows every three chapters, and includes a vocabulary summary and exercises on the chief new material, followed by three sections, in English, which are cultural sidelights. These include, first, an account of one of the major Roman gods; second, a small bit of social history (such as slavery, Roman attire, cities and road systems, gladiators); and, last, a short summary of some aspects of Roman social, political or literary history, written by outside contributors. The contributions from William Anderson on Roman comedy and from James Keenan on Roman Law are particularly successful for their engagement and explication of the texts students have read, and that of Jacqueline Carlon on Roman families, for its constant recourse to Latin vocabulary. All three sidelights in these review sections will doubtless have a greater role to play in high school courses assessed through the National Latin Exam or other state exams, which inevitably include questions about the Roman Pantheon or Roman social and political history. But for the purposes of simple cultural enrichment, the adapted readings are often sufficient.
To give a better sense for the book's composition, it is useful to look in detail at a specific chapter, such as chapter 15. The chapter begins with an adapted reading from Seneca's Epistulae Morales (12). The reading is greatly altered from Seneca's original, but to good purpose. Vocabulary is pared down; subjunctives and tenses of the indicative not yet learned have all been removed. Futures of the third and fourth conjugation have been carefully added (one of the primary grammatical goals of the chapter). The reading is just long enough to capture both the humor of the passage as well as Seneca's central observation in the letter: the theme of memento mori. The adaptation is significant, but judicious. Although not the original texts, these simplified passages from ancient prose are a wonderful avenue for covering themes from the literature in the target language.
After the adapted reading in chapter 15, the first 'Language Fact' section presents the future active and passive of third, fourth and third conjugation -io verbs (p. 249). An exercise follows that requires transformations of present and imperfect tense verbs into the future (p. 250). The student is then required to translate both the original form and the derived form into English. The Teacher's Manual contains an oral exercise of similar transformations for additional oral practice (p. 249). Next is the vocabulary for memorization, a subset of the gloss list found at the start of the chapter. In every chapter, this list is followed by an exercise meant to teach English derivatives from the vocabulary.
The second 'Language Fact' section presents interrogative pronouns and adjectives, illustrated by some easy sentences of both types of words. Paradigms of each are then presented. Numerous exercises follow. In one exercise, students are asked to translate simple sentences into Latin which make use either of the interrogative pronoun or adjectives (such as 'Whose villa is old?'and 'Whose (plural) villas are old?') (p. 254). An exercise in the Teacher's Manual (p. 253) contains simple sentences which students are to read and then transform, orally, into questions by replacing underlined forms with interrogative pronouns and adjectives. Another brief oral exercise encourages active use of the interrogative pronoun. The teacher, it is suggested, could ask various students such pre-formulated questions as 'Quis es?', 'Quis sum?', 'Cuius liber est?' and so forth (Teacher's Manual, p. 252). Sample answers are given. This sort of exercise is a good example of the often charming hints tucked away in the Teacher's Manual which could help enliven an otherwise dreary grammatical point and present an additional way to help ground the students in the morphology. Another textbook exercise contains a skillful review of the reading: questions are asked (in Latin) about the content of the Seneca passage, and students are asked to pick the most appropriate response from among three possible answers in Latin (pp. 254-55). In yet another exercise, students work on translation and composition. They are to read a short dialogue based on the reading, translating Latin into English and English to Latin (p. 256). The grammatical points tested most intensively are third and fourth conjugation verbs as well as interrogative pronouns and adjectives, the chapter's main points. Such useful exercises, found throughout the text, form the backbone of the book.
Finally, the chapter ends with a short dialogue between the recurring cast of student characters. The topic is a trip to the country, an appropriate topic given Seneca's own trip to his villa in the chapter's adapted reading. It contains a mix of mostly vocabulary with ancient pedigree (rus, along with ruri and rure, semita, deambulare, sub divo, vehor) and occasional, but sensible neologisms (birota, mantica dorsualis, tentorium plicatile). Then follows an oral exercise based upon the dialogue, which tests the students' reading comprehension and reinforces vocabulary with simple Latin questions which the students are to answer in Latin. The final oral exercise is a short dictation based on the chapter's opening reading. Afterwards, the students may be asked reading comprehension questions to which they are required to give Latin responses.
As my review of chapter 15 indicates, the book's rich and diverse supply of useful classroom exercises is one of its most important contributions. The authors are careful to suggest a number of the tried and true oral drills: practice conjugations and declensions, work with principal parts, declensions both of isolated nouns and of noun phrases complete with demonstrative pronouns and adjectives, and basic translation from and to Latin. But there are subtle touches which improve their overall effect. In their translation exercises, they have been careful not to encumber students with multiple variables, as the sentences are normally focused enough that they help students exercise the specific skill currently being reinforced. Moreover, these exercises invariably use the vocabulary of the adapted reading, providing useful repetition. But in addition to these more standard drills, there are also a number of transformational drills and completion exercises ('cloze tests'), which prove to be extremely effective both for improving and testing comprehension. The teacher's manual contains even further exercises, including oral transformational drills and dictation exercises. A number of the 'Teacher's Tips' and almost all the oral exercises are enormously innovative and tremendously effective (for some examples, see p. 202, ch. 12; p. 223, ch. 13; p. 252, ch. 15; p. 291, ch. 17; p. 169, ch. 10). It would be difficult to think of another textbook which rivals this one in the number and quality of these transformation, completion and dictation exercises.2 The exercises should be of interest to all Latin instructors, whether or not they adopt the textbook for their courses.
The historical scope of the material contained in LNM is so vast that the textbook itself becomes an implicit argument for the value of studying Latin, given its longevity as a literary language and in various scholarly disciplines. The book, however, as far as can be judged in level one, adheres strictly to the norms of Classical Latin in its description of the grammar (the perfect is simply described as, e.g., laudatus sum, not laudatus fui), and the vocabulary intended for memorization is straight from the canonical authors. The level two text will include Bede, Einhard, Abelard, the Gesta Romanorum, Petrarch, Erasmus, Thomas More, Sepulveda, and Copernicus. There too, it appears that the Latin texts of the standard canon will be given privileged status since the unadapted texts which begin to be used in the level two text are from the letters of Cicero and Nepos' life of Atticus. This primacy of both the grammar of Classical Latin as well as its literary monuments should be stressed if level two's vastly increased scope causes some hesitation for instructors deciding whether to adopt the text. If anything, Terence and Cicero seem to take on added importance as foundational authors in a two-thousand-year tradition of thinkers who expressed their thought in Latin.
The Latin dialogues at the end of each chapter are a helpful supplement to the text and succeed on two levels. Since they concern the daily life of students at roughly the age of those using the text, they will be contextualized by the reader's own experiences. As a result, they can be read with relative ease, giving students fairly rapid exposure to more Latin. Second , and less tangibly, their familiar content gives students a helpful psychological link to the language. The dialogues arm them, to some extent, with some of the vocabulary and modes of expression which they would be acquiring in a modern language class and, hence, often expect to learn in the Latin classroom. Incidentally, they are reminiscent of their medieval and Renaissance era counterparts, especially those of Erasmus, Corderius and Juan Luis Vives.3 Doubtless in the Renaissance, there was a pressing motivation to learn to use Latin actively, and there were plentiful opportunities for students aspiring to university studies to make active use of it. This is to say, one hoped from such colloquia to become a better speaker of Latin. But even Erasmus intended such formulae loquendi, simple sentences for common situations, to be used as a preface to reading of ancient authors.4 The Latin dialogues in LNM serve a similar function by allowing for additional practice in the language and a closer connection to it before the hard work of reading unadapted authors begins.
Some sections of the textbook could be improved upon in later editions. The transition to the perfect tense, while never a particularly pleasant shift in the classroom, could be handled more gently than the authors do. The perfect active and passive have been presented as if the difficulty students encounter is only with adding the personal endings to the stems, and not the memorization and recollection of the numerous irregular stems. The authors cover basic points about the perfect, including the meaning of the third principal part, perfect tense personal endings, as well as the standard stem changes seen for each conjugation in the perfect tense. But there is no mention of the mostly anomalous quality of the third conjugation in the perfect. This is curious, because in the next exercise five of the eleven forms students have to provide are third conjugation, and only one of the other six actually follows the patterns they describe as sometimes operative (p. 279). Lastly, only two of the forms (misisti and dixit) have had their principal parts presented within the chapter. While students have been presented with principal parts in the vocabulary from chapter one, they would benefit from a synopsis of principal parts of more common verbs already learned. Otherwise, students will either need to have exceptional recall, or look for each form individually in the glossary. A similar point can be made about their presentation and exercises for the perfect passive participle, perfect passive indicative and perfect infinitives (see pp. 334-35, 338-40 and 341 of the textbook, and p. 341 of the Teacher's Manual).
Three smaller points can be mentioned. First, it would be of great use if the authors were to include citations for all original passages used in the text, whether adapted or not. A constant practice of citing the text would help teachers who are eager to move beyond the textbook's adaptation, whether curious about the origin or context, or eager to investigate occasional obscurities, or seeking to find some supplemental material. I can only suspect that this will be more critical in level two, as the sources and editions become even more obscure for most prospective teachers. Second, some discussion of the vocabulary of Neo-Latin would be welcome and useful, even if only in the Teacher's Manual. Few Classicists will have a deep acquaintance with this literature, and would be helped by a brief synopsis explaining the principles of certain neologisms (though some of these terms are now centuries old) and the literature and lexica from which they are drawn. Something similar exists already in these authors' own works, and could be fruitfully restated and expanded upon in the LNM Teacher's Manual.5 The bibliography is helpful in pointing the way to some useful texts, but falls short of exposition (see pp. 427-28). Lastly, because the Teacher's Manual contains many of the exercises I've discussed, it is one of the most useful contributions the text makes. Unfortunately, at legal size, it is almost unportable. It contains a full copy of the actual page of the text, along with additional exercises in the margins. But it is not only unwieldy, it is also delicate. Because it is paperback, I would assume its spiral-bound cover has little hope of surviving serious use for any prolonged period. At its current price ($99), it seems that the Teacher's Manual should be more convenient and more durable.
LNM is an attractive text. On a physical level, the text is brilliantly illustrated. But its beauty is not skin-deep. The images are often as lavish as they are instructive, and the art gives students a sense of the deep importance of the Classical tradition for European education until the twentieth century.6 Its texts and exercises are clearly the fruit of years of thought and practice. The scope of the book itself reflects a long-standing belief on the part of Terence Tunberg for the need to broaden the canon covered in Classics departments to include medieval and Neo-Latin texts.7 Whether or not his arguments can gain traction, the text which Tunberg and Minkova have produced makes a strong case for Latin's enduring ability to communicate high-level thought, whether in ancient texts or in modern ones. Moreover, its exercises and dialogues, drawing on the authors' considerable experience and expertise in both oral and written composition, succeed in offering a tremendous array of classroom practice which can enrich any Latin classroom.
Corrigenda in the textbook:
p. 2: For 'Amulius' daughter Rhea Silvia', we should instead read 'Numitor's daughter Rhea Silvia'.
pp. 77 and 78: neuter plural accusative is given as 'pulchram'.
p. 78: Feminine accusative plural of 'miser' given as 'miseros', vocative given as 'miseri'. (Both this and the preceding noted in an online forum by Marla Neal of the Girls Preparatory School in Chattanooga, TN).
p. 87: Instead of 'potens' and its gloss, we should perhaps read 'potis', 'able'. p. 172: 'occultati' should read 'occultatis'.
p. 225: In exercise 3, number 7, there is a missing macron on 'invidê'.
p. 240: The directions to exercise 5 seem to imply a previous discussion of the use of nominative personal pronouns of the first and second persons for emphasis, though nothing, so far as I can tell, has been explicitly stated up to this point (cf. p. 21).
p. 357: 'illam arborem petivimus' here rendered 'We looked for that tree'. It seems their original intention was to suggest that Augustine's band of juvenile malefactors headed for the tree. The authors have supplied 'arborem petivimus' in place of Augustine's original 'ad hanc (sc. arborem) excutiendam...perreximus', and the glossary itself lists this sense of 'petere'.
p. 359: The caption, probably not attributable to the authors, suggests that the word 'numismatics' comes from the Latin 'nummus'.
Corrigenda in the teacher's manual:
p. xxv: the letters 'civs' in the inscription, in reality the end of the name of M. Porcius M. f. (CIL X, 852), are erroneously related in the caption to the word 'civis'. p. 182: In exercise 1, number 4, 'you (pl.) were calling' should read 'we were calling'.
p. 186: (not necessarily a mistake made by the authors, see p. xxiii of the Teacher's Manual) Saguntum lay south, not north of the Ebro river. This mistake appears in ancient authors from time to time, explicitly (see Appian, Hisp. 2.7, Hann. 1.3) or implicitly, but is not found in more trustworthy historians.
p. 189: In the last line of the dictation, there is a false quantity on the last syllable of the word 'debet', repeated on p. 190, number 10.
p. 204: The first word in the question 'Qui Mucium cupiunt?' is missing a macron.
p. 217: The phrase 'casus belli' has lost its macron on the first word, both in the phrase and in the gloss.
p. 223: 'relinquere - relinque, relinquere' should instead read 'relinquere - relinque, relinquite'.
p. 308: 'eritis' of exercise 4, number 4 is mistakenly glossed as 'you (pl.) were'.
p. 314: In Oral Exercise 7, in the sixth question on the page, given the future perfect in the cum-clause, 'debebit' is expected in the question instead of 'debebat'.
p. 329: In the last sentence we should instead find 'By propitiating'.
1. This includes several handouts in PDF format downloadable from the Bolchazy-Carducci website, at least within posts in an online 'teachers' lounge', also useful for updates on the text (requires login). There are also question banks on Quia for teachers to draw on for quizzes. For students, there are recordings of selected readings from the textbook, which are promised to expand to include all readings within the next academic year ( http://www.lnm.bolchazy.com/lnmmultimedia.html ). Students can download digital flashcards which they can purchase and use on an iPod ( http://ipodius.bolchazy.com/).
2. There are, on average, about 12 exercises per chapter, in addition to whatever exercises can be found in the workbook, which compares rather favorably with most texts on the market. The workbook has a number of exercises, as well, which I haven't taken account of in this figure.
3. The bulk of the school dialogues were done in the 16th century and early 17th centuries (see Alois Bömer, Die lateinischen Schülergespräche der Humanisten, vols. 1 and 2, Berlin, 1897 and 1901). They enjoyed a long afterlife. Vives was used in Italy as a preparation for Classical authors for some time (see, e.g., Paul Grendler, Schooling in Renaissance Italy, Baltimore, 1989, pp. 199-201); Corderius proved popular in England and, later, the American colonies. He continued to be in print until the early 19th century. Routinely such dialogues were used after the initial study of the basic grammar and before students' first reading of authors.
4. See his comments in the De Ratione Studii (675:32-676:8 in the Toronto translation, vol. 24).
5. For example, in one of the appendices in Readings and Exercises in Latin Prose Composition (181-85) (Newburyport, Mass., 2004) and in Minkova's Introduction to Latin Prose Composition (111-14) (London, 2001).
6. To give a few examples, the image of the rota fortunae at start of chapter 21 is quite appropriate and illuminating. Laurent 'Pécheux's Mucius Scaevola is perfectly suited to the adaptation of Livy's account of the same (chapter 12, pp. 191-92), and the image of the Via Sacra today is appropriately placed with Horace's satire on the bore (1.9) (pp. 219-20). Some illustrations may be used to bring up points not covered in the texts but which could provide cultural enrichment, such as Henryk Siemiradzki's Pochodnie Nerona ("Nero's torches"), showing the Christians about to be burned in retribution for their supposed responsibility for the fire (p. 287), recalling Tacitus' Annales 15.44. The image of St. Augustine and Monica might recall the 'ecstasy at Ostia' (p. 349) of Confessions 9.10.24-25.
7. Compare Tunberg's own words from a piece on this very subject: "From the very beginning of the process of learning Latin, students should be made aware of its entire history. Students at every level should have some contact with more recent works in Latin, not merely the ancient ones. They should acquire some notion of how vast and complex is this later Latin tradition and what a fundamental part of our intellectual heritage is contained within it and handed down by it." ("Latinitas: The Misdiagnosis of Latin's Rigor Mortis," American Classical League Newsletter, 22. no. 2, Winter 2000, pp. 21-26).
Review by: Kevin Finnigan, Skaneateles High School - April 14, 2009
I had a total of 21 Gold medals over the five levels I teach and 13 Silver medals. In fact, of the 66 students who took the National Latin Exam, 57 won awards.)
I feel that Latin for the New Millennium's visual appeal, vocabulary, clear and concise grammatical explanations, abundant drill material and engaging readings were instrumental in aiding my students to excel in the National Latin exam.
Kevin Finnigan, Latin Teacher
Skaneateles High School
Review by: Ann Bradley, Duchesne Academy of the Sacred Heart - March 20, 2009
We have used LNM for this year's Latin Elective Course. Because it is a Junior/Senior elective for students in French or Spanish III or IV or for those who need a third year credit but do not want more advanced modern languages, we have gone slowly and thoroughly through the first half of Latin I, and we expect to finish the year with Chapter 12. The five Juniors are determined to continue and finish the book with me even if they have to do it during their free period next year.
All the students agree with me that the book is "student-friendly" and a pleasure. Interestingly, they have been more interested in the grammar and vocabulary than in the historical material, but they are absorbing a good amount of it as well. Their strongest skill is translation Latin to English and the weakest is English to Latin, but I feel good about the amount they have learned and have enjoyed learning. Their suggestion for any second edition is to have more translation exercises from English to Latin.
Your on-line help has been a major asset.
Review by: Kevin Finnigan, Skaneateles High School - March 1, 2009
Some thoughts about Latin for the New Millennium, Level I, (First Edition)
Here is a rather "stream of consciousness" collection of my thoughts on using LNM this year.
On the whole, I am thrilled about the text. As with any text, I do have some suggestions as to how I feel it might be made even better.
First off, I find the introduction of indirect statement in Chapter 7 to be problematic. There is so much very basic material that the students do not know at this juncture that to put a structure which is so foreign to English syntax ahead of those more "basic" concepts is, I feel, unwise. While my "top" students seemed to grasp the concept, my students with lesser ability had a great deal of difficulty. I had to teach this structure to my students in level II as well, where I would normally teach it, and even the "average" students there seemed to grasp the concecpt with much less difficulty simply because of their having more exposure to Latin.
Another concern is that the Perfect Active Tense is postponed until Chapter 16, yet the students are required to learn the third principle part as soon as principle parts are introduced, with no real reason to know it for what is the greater part of the academic year! Why not introduce the Perfect Active Tense in Chapter 7 (this would facilitate writing the readings, would it not?) and place the indirect statement in Chapter 16? Then, it (the Perfect Active) could be contrasted with the use of the Imperfect introduced in Unit IV.
LNM purports to be a "fusion" of the reading method and the grammar-translation method. Generally I feel that it does a good job at this. What puzzles me is that the testing program contains no reading comprehension type questions, that is, passages followed by multiple choice questions of the type that are on the AP exams and the SAT II exams and the New York State Regents and Proficiency exams, and the National Latin Exam. If the text's vocabulary is aimed at helping students do better on these standardized tests, does it not makes sense to have practice qeustions and test questrions set up like this which are based on either a chapter or the vocabulary for the specific unit?
One thing which would be very helpful for the teacher is to have all the "Worlds to Know" annotated with the Chapter number where it is first requried to be memorized. This would be invaluable when a teacher has to make up a quiz or test or even worksheet.
The workbook, for the most part, is well done. However, I think that for every chapter the exercises should go in the same sequence that they appear in the textbook chapter. Also, please drill one structure at a time. Having the students do "multiple operations" in one exercise is fine for a Chpater Review or certainly a Unit Review, but not when teaching a new concept or structure. Speaking of Unit Reveiw, I am disappointed that the Review Units are not represented in the workbook. As I mentioned in our conversation, I tend to use the drills in the textbook ORALLY and assign workbook exercises for writing. That technique is obviously not possible when there are no workbook exercises for the Unit Review.
Hopefully you will find the above helpful and I am more than willing to expand or explain anything above in more detail. I am sure I will think of other things as time goes on. I look forward to be of further assistance.
Review by: Sharon Kazmierski, The Classical Outlook - October 1, 2008
LATIN FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM
Hot off the presses from Bolchazy-Carducci, Latin for the New Millennium (ISBN 0865165602) is a unique and innovative new two-year introductory Latin program suitable for high school and university students. Authored by gifted Latinists Milena Minkova and Terence Tunberg, directors of the Institute for Latin Studies at the University of Kentucky, and edited by veteran teacher LeaAnn Osburn, it's no surprise that this series takes an entirely different perspective than other contemporary Latin textbooks. Unlike other recent series, which are centered around a connected story about a family at a specific time and place in the ancient world, LNM's organizing principle is the story of the Latin language itself, from the second century BCE through the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and modern world. Level 1 begins with adapted selections from the comedies of Plautus and Terence and progresses chronologically over a span of nearly 1000 years with excerpts based on works by Cicero, Caesar, Catullus, Nepos, Sallust, Vergil, Livy, Ovid, Seneca, Pliny, Tacitus, Apuleius, Ammianus, Augustine, and Boethius. This sequential approach to contextualizing the language makes it much easier for students to see the importance and endurance of the Latin language and to make connections between the ancient and modern world. Latin for the New Millennium, Level 2, which should be available in early 2009, will continue onward through history, presenting selections adapted from medieval, Renaissance, and modern authors as well as a work of original, authentic Classical Latin.
Latin for the New Millennium utilizes a "fusion" approach to language acquisition. By combining techniques from the traditional grammar-translation method with the contemporary reading approach, this course aims to teach students how to read fluently with grammatical accuracy and syntactical awareness. Each chapter begins with a Latin passage accompanied by a beautiful full-color fine art illustration, pre-reading material, alphabetical vocabulary notes and other clues, which encourage students to use context to develop efficient reading strategies. This target-language passage is followed by comprehension questions in English as well as clear explanations of important language facts, which clarify the morphology and syntax introduced in the reading selection. Conventional exercises encouraging memorization and grammatical precision are provided in both the textbook and the accompanying workbook. Vocabulary has been selected to prepare students from the beginning for Advanced Placement and university level courses. Conversational dialogues between modern students at the end of each chapter encourage oral use of Latin. Extension activities provided in the teacher's manual provide opportunities to promote active conversation and bring the language to life in the classroom.
The most exciting feature of Latin for the New Millennium is Bolchazy-Carducci's innovative online support system, accessible at http://lnm.bolchazycom. Utilizing the popular Ning format, this interactive Teachers' Lounge provides a place for teachers using this new series to network and collaborate, participate in threaded discussions, create blog pages, upload lesson plans, worksheets, flashcards, photos, videos, and other multimedia, exchange activity links, and much more. This forum enables teachers to collaborate easily on new and useful materials to customize the course. For example, I would love to see more contextualized Latin drills (like those described by Paul Distler in his book Teach the Latin, I Pray You). I would also appreciate more Latin comprehension questions for the stories, in addition to the English ones, to encourage students to talk about the Latin authors in Latin. Teachers with the desire for similar exercises can easily work together with other instructors, anywhere in the world, to design activities, upload and share them. The LNM support site also makes it possible for the publisher to make important files pertaining to the series immediately available to teachers. Currently available for download are a Scope and Sequence (outlining the narrative, grammatical, cultural, and conversational components of the course) as well as documents correlating LNM to the Standards for Classical Language Learning and The National Latin Exam Syllabus. There are also MP3 audio recordings of passages and dialogues from the book. Even more exciting is the student section, which includes links to the Second Life Villa, the all-Latin World of Warcraft Guild, and the eClassics Social Network, where students may practice using their new language in a fun, familiar, and friendly setting.
To view sample chapters from the Latin for the New Millennium student textbook, workbook, teacher's manual and ancillaries, visit Bolchazy-Carducci at http://www.bolchazy.com. E-mail inquiries may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also direct questions to the publisher by contacting Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 1570 Baskin Road, Mundelein, Illinois 60060 USA, Tel. (800) 392-6453, Fax. (847) 526-2867
LNM review from Classical Outlook 86.1, Fall 2008
Review by: Teresa Boody, Shelbyed.k12.al.us - June 12, 2008
David, just wanted to let you know that I received the student copy of the new textbook and have spent a good amount of time this weekend reviewing it. Impressive! I'm so excited about this book and think the folks at BC are to be commended for such hard work. I am an old-fashioned Latin grammar teacher but have read so much "back and forth" about the reading approach that I have been curious about the benefits of this method. I think I'm too old and too comfortable to stray too far from the grammar approach and have sort of adopted the idea that "if it's not broke, why fix it!". My students have always done very well both on the NLE and at the collegiate level and so I didn't feel the need to change textbooks or methods other than for the sake of change. Therefore, I adopted LFA again last year when our system purchased new foreign language textbooks. How I wish this book had come out last year b/c I certainly would have recommended this for adoption. I think the authors have hit on a very well balanced formula that incorporates both methods. I would think that advocates of both approaches should be pleased with the book. I believe I will still satisfy my need to teach my students the beauty and organization of Latin grammar but also enable them to read Latin more fluently and competently.
I think one of the things that most excites me is the sequence and pace of the skills and concepts. I believe my students can complete this textbook in one year, something I have never been able to do with LFA. I think I will also be very comfortable with the spoken Latin that is presented and the "reading" approach is so well balanced with the grammar approach that I think I can comfortably teach this "hybrid" method. I also love the sequence of Roman history and the introduction of the authors from the first lesson. I have always struggled with knowing when best to fit this into the curriculum and have never been happy just telling the students to "wait" until Latin III and Latin IV when we get to Ovid, Vergil, etc. I especially love Plautus, and there he is in Lesson 1! I still have a lot to look through in the book, but just wanted to give you a quick reply that I've received the copy you sent me last week and that I'm very excited about it. I eagerly look forward to learning more about it at ACL in a few weeks. I'm about to go to my school in a few minutes and fax the PO. Please let me know if you don't receive this by tomorrow. Multas Gratias and Macte!